[10] The late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche ("head"), from the Picard dialect of Old French. [54], In 2018, world production of cabbages (combined with other brassicas) was 69.4 million tonnes, led by China with 48% of the world total (table). This slaw uses both red and green cabbage. The sautéed-anything workhorse. Feel free to cater our purple cabbage soup to your family members by adding additional spices. [74] In Poland, cabbage is one of the main food crops, and it features prominently in Polish cuisine. [1], The varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for "having a head". [33] Ptolemaic Egyptians knew the cole crops as gramb, under the influence of Greek krambe, which had been a familiar plant to the Macedonian antecedents of the Ptolemies. Oblate, round and pointed shapes are found. By the Middle Ages, cabbage had become a prominent part of European cuisine. [68] Destructive soil insects include the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) and the cabbage maggot (Hylemya brassicae), whose larvae can burrow into the part of plant consumed by humans. the buds of immature flowers the fruit of plants the leaves of plants [66] The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is infamous in North America for its voracious appetite and for producing frass that contaminates plants. [57] Some varieties of cabbage have been developed for ornamental use; these are generally called "flowering cabbage". [65], One of the most common bacterial diseases to affect cabbage is black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris, which causes chlorotic and necrotic lesions that start at the leaf margins, and wilting of plants. [60], When being grown for seed, cabbages must be isolated from other B. oleracea subspecies, including the wild varieties, by 0.8 to 1.6 km (1⁄2 to 1 mi) to prevent cross-pollination. The nice thing about green cabbage is diced onions blend right into looking like cabbage! [49] Carl Peter Thunberg reported that cabbage was not yet known in Japan in 1775. [20], Mostly introduced by accident to North America, Australia and New Zealand, "cabbage worms", the larvae of Pieris rapae, also known as the "small white" butterfly, are a common pest in broccoli. In commercial-scale operations, hand-harvested cabbages are trimmed, sorted, and packed directly in the field to increase efficiency. Biological risk assessments have concluded that there is the potential for further outbreaks linked to uncooked cabbage, due to contamination at many stages of the growing, harvesting and packaging processes. Add cabbage and turn in pan, sauteing it until it wilts, 3 to 5 minutes. Under conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow quite large. Vacuum cooling rapidly refrigerates the vegetable, allowing for earlier shipping and a fresher product. wikioticsIan/Flickr. White, also called Dutch – Smooth, pale green leaves, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 19:58. Other major producers were India, South Korea, and Russia. Olive Oil. —Grace Voltolina, Westport, Connecticut [6][7][8] Broccoli was spread to northern Europe by the 18th century and brought to North America in the 19th century by Italian immigrants. These develop when cabbage is overcooked and hydrogen sulfide gas is produced.[78]. This recipe can be cut in half by using only half a head of cabbage. In certain climates, cabbage can be planted at the beginning of the cold period and survive until a later warm period without being induced to flower, a practice that was common in the eastern US. "Broccoli—Brassica oleracea L. (Italica group)", "Broccoli (and cauliflower) production in 2017, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "From landrace to modern hybrid broccoli: the genomic and morphological domestication syndrome within a diverse B. oleracea collection", "Genotyping-by-sequencing of Brassica oleracea vegetables reveals unique phylogenetic patterns, population structure and domestication footprints", "A Mechanistic Perspective on Process-Induced Changes in Glucosinolate Content in Brassica Vegetables: A Review", "Complex Horticultural Quality Traits in Broccoli Are Illuminated by Evaluation of the Immortal BolTBDH Mapping Population", "High temperature arrest of inflorescence development in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Dijon Pork Chops with Cabbage and Fennel. Basic research on cabbage phytochemicals is ongoing to discern if certain cabbage compounds may affect health or have potential for anti-disease effects, such as sulforaphane and other glucosinolates. Get the recipe here. [39] Pliny the Elder listed seven varieties, including Pompeii cabbage, Cumae cabbage and Sabellian cabbage. [63], Fungal diseases include wirestem, which causes weak or dying transplants; Fusarium yellows, which result in stunted and twisted plants with yellow leaves; and blackleg (see Leptosphaeria maculans), which leads to sunken areas on stems and gray-brown spotted leaves. italica) using genotyping-by-sequencing", "Cabbage, Broccoli & Other Cole Crop Insect Pests", "Human bitter perception correlates with bitter receptor messenger RNA expression in taste cells", "Genetics and bitter taste responses to goitrin, a plant toxin found in vegetables", List of North American broccoli cultivars, "Creating a broccoli for all seasons to hedge against climate change", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Broccoli&oldid=994626887, Articles containing Italian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 18:15. Look for heads that feel heavy for their size (which can range from softball to almost basketball size), with tightly packed, moist looking leaves. Cabbage . Cabbage is a good source of vitamin K, vitamin C and dietary fiber. Napa cabbage, getting all sliced up. Add oil and onion and saute 2 minutes. [37] Apicius gives several recipes for cauliculi, tender cabbage shoots. Spinach and cabbage are _____. [7], It is eaten either raw or cooked. [80] Studies on cruciferous vegetables, including cabbage, include whether they may lower the risk against colon cancer. Two of the six stamens have shorter filaments. [82], In addition to its usual purpose as an edible vegetable, cabbage has been used historically in herbalism. It has a head shaped like cauliflower, but consisting of many tiny flower buds. [14] Most cabbages have thick, alternating leaves, with margins that range from wavy or lobed to highly dissected; some varieties have a waxy bloom on the leaves. Green – Light to dark green, slightly pointed heads. The simplest options include eating the vegetable raw or steaming it, though many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or braise cabbage. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae) thrive in the higher summer temperatures of continental Europe, where they cause considerable damage to cabbage crops. [40][72], Cabbage is prepared and consumed in many ways. In cooking, cabbage is used as a vegetable in savoury dishes. The flowering cabbage does have small usually white or yellow flowers on long stocks, but most never see these. of cabbages. [92], This article is about the vegetable. [41] Cabbage continued to figure in the materia medica of antiquity as well as at table: in the first century AD Dioscorides mentions two kinds of coleworts with medical uses, the cultivated and the wild,[10] and his opinions continued to be paraphrased in herbals right through the 17th century. Cabbage was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century AD. As of 2012[update], the heaviest cabbage was 62.71 kilograms (138.25 lb). However, genetic analysis is consistent with feral origin of this population, deriving from plants escaped from field and gardens. [13] Purple cauliflower or Violet Cauliflower is a type of broccoli grown in Europe and North America. [84] The ancient Roman, Pliny the Elder, described both culinary and medicinal properties of the vegetable. As nouns the difference between bud and cabbage is that bud is a newly formed leaf or flower that has not yet unfolded or bud can be (informal) buddy, friend while cabbage is an edible plant (brassica oleracea var capitata ) having a head of green leaves. Cabbage. It has large (10 to 20 cm) green heads and thick stalks. [64], Factors that contribute to reduced head weight include: growth in the compacted soils that result from no-till farming practices, drought, waterlogging, insect and disease incidence, and shading and nutrient stress caused by weeds. [17], The majority of broccoli cultivars are cool-weather crops that do poorly in hot summer weather. [5] Cabbage seeds traveled to Australia in 1788 with the First Fleet, and were planted the same year on Norfolk Island. Excessive consumption of cabbage may lead to increased intestinal gas which causes bloating and flatulence due to the trisaccharide raffinose, which the human small intestine cannot digest, but is digested by bacteria in the large intestine. Lower heat slightly, then cook and stir for about 5 minutes, until the onion is wilted. [16] Breeding objectives are now focused on increasing resistance to various insects and diseases and improving the nutritional content of cabbage. [87] As of 2019[update], there is no clinical evidence that cabbage has any medicinal properties. Several other cruciferous vegetables (sometimes known as cole crops[2]) are cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and sprouting broccoli. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree (a member of the genus Andira) and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, Acrocomia and Euterpe oenocarpus. These include the heaviest cabbage, at 57.61 kilograms (127.0 lb),[19] heaviest red cabbage, at 19.05 kilograms (42.0 lb),[20] longest cabbage roll, at 15.37 m (50 ft 5 in),[21] and the largest cabbage dish, at 925.4 kilograms (2,040 lb). [64], Pests include root-knot nematodes and cabbage maggots, which produce stunted and wilted plants with yellow leaves; aphids, which induce stunted plants with curled and yellow leaves; harlequin cabbage bugs, which cause white and yellow leaves; thrips, which lead to leaves with white-bronze spots; striped flea beetles, which riddle leaves with small holes; and caterpillars, which leave behind large, ragged holes in leaves. The outer leaves are trimmed, and any diseased, damaged, or necrotic leaves are removed. [55], Plants are generally started in protected locations early in the growing season before being transplanted outside, although some are seeded directly into the ground from which they will be harvested. Broccoli grows best when exposed to an average daily temperature between 18 and 23 °C (64 and 73 °F). [58] Cabbages are mature when they are firm and solid to the touch. [52], Jacques Cartier first brought cabbage to the Americas in 1541–42, and it was probably planted by the early English colonists, despite the lack of written evidence of its existence there until the mid-17th century. Contaminants from water, humans, animals and soil have the potential to be transferred to cabbage, and from there to the end consumer. [70], Cabbages sold for market are generally smaller, and different varieties are used for those sold immediately upon harvest and those stored before sale. 2. Brassica was considered by some Romans a table luxury,[37] although Lucullus considered it unfit for the senatorial table. [37] The Pompeii cabbage was also mentioned by Columella in De Re Rustica. [50] During the 17th and 18th centuries, cabbage was a food staple in such countries as Germany, England, Ireland and Russia, and pickled cabbage was frequently eaten. [2], Many shapes, colors and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage. [47], In Istanbul, Sultan Selim III penned a tongue-in-cheek ode to cabbage: without cabbage, the halva feast was not complete. [42] When round-headed cabbages appeared in 14th-century England they were called cabaches and caboches, words drawn from Old French and applied at first to refer to the ball of unopened leaves,[43] the contemporaneous recipe that commences "Take cabbages and quarter them, and seethe them in good broth",[44] also suggests the tightly headed cabbage. [14] Closer spacing reduces the resources available to each plant (especially the amount of light) and increases the time taken to reach maturity. If you use some red cabbage, it will have very festive colors, light pink with green. [28] The headed cabbage variety was known to the Greeks as krambe and to the Romans as brassica or olus;[33] the open, leafy variety (kale) was known in Greek as raphanos and in Latin as caulis. [24] In some varieties the normally bitter tasting compounds are in less volatile forms. [40] The antipathy towards the vine made it seem that eating cabbage would enable one to avoid drunkenness. 3 tablespoons nam pla (Thai fish sauce) 1 teaspoon ground white pepper. This is one of my greatest hits for a potluck dish at church suppers. Plants perform best when grown in well-drained soil in a location that receives full sun. [64] The caterpillar stage of the "small cabbage white butterfly" (Pieris rapae), commonly known in the United States as the "imported cabbage worm", is a major cabbage pest in most countries. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. It looks so pretty. The Greeks and Romans claimed medicinal usages for their cabbage varieties that included relief from gout, headaches and the symptoms of poisonous mushroom ingestion. While living in Switzerland for a few years, my friends introduced me to an area renowned for their cabbage, pork and potato dishes. Cabbage is a round vegetable with white, green, or purple leaves that is usually eaten cooked. 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