(List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number). The classification system includes idiophones, membranophones, aerophones, chordophones, and electrophones. Chordophones are subdivided into zither-like instruments including the piano and harpsichord, classified as ‘simple chordophones’, and ‘composite chordophones’ where the structure includes a neck, yoke or other component which acts as a string holder. The air-stream meets a sharp edge, or a sharp edge is moved through the air. He was an assistant to Stumpf at the Psychological Institute (1905) until its archives became the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv, of which he was director from 1906 to 1933. trans., W, 1–84], ‘Melodischer Tanz: eine musikpsychologische Studie’, ZIMG, v (1903–4), 482–8 [Eng. The latter category includes the xylophone, the marimba, the glockenspiel, and the glass harmonica. 111.242.221 Sets of hanging bells without internal strikers. This includes the variations of categories, but not the categories themselves. Although his methodologies have been criticized for the biases which, as a product of the Berlin ‘cultural-historical’ school, they inevitably inherited, his contributions are still highly valued. Formally, the Hornbostel–Sachs is modeled on the Dewey Decimal Classification for libraries. Some commentators believe that instruments in this class ought instead to be regarded as chordophones (see below). Sachs was one of the founders of comparative musicology (‘vergleichende Musikwissenschaft’), a forerunner of ethnomusicology, and of modern organology. He was filled to overflowing with ideas and with energy; the amount of work he produced in his busy life was prodigious. trans., W, 247–70], with O. Abraham: ‘Über die Harmonisierbarkeit exotischer Melodien’, SIMG, vii (1905–6), 138–41 [Eng. Instruments having electric action (e.g. The plane of the strings lies at right angles to the sound-table; a line joining the lower ends of the strings would be perpendicular to the neck. Example: There are eight types of flutes in the western concert flute category, which are all metal. Instruments with a string attached to the membrane, so that when the string is plucked, the membrane vibrates (plucked drums). 111.242.222 Sets of hanging bells with internal strikers. Khrueang Sai ... the Mahori is usually accompanied by the so sam sai. In the membranophone class, for instance, suffixes can indicate whether the skin of a drum is glued, nailed or tied to its body; in the chordophone class, suffixes can indicate whether the strings are plucked with fingers or plectrum, or played with a bow. As with all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player's vibrating lips (embouchure) cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. K.K. Yet his classification system of instruments (with Sachs, 1914, based on a system earlier proposed by V.-C. Mahillon) and his studies on the psychology of musical perception, the cross-cultural implications of tuning systems, and folk polyphonies remain important to ethnomusicology. Collectively they were known as the Berlin School. a tube in which the air vibrates only in a secondary sense, not producing the sound but simply adding roundness and timbre to the sound made by the reed's vibration; generally recognizable by the absence of fingerholes though present-day ethnomusicologists, such as Margaret Kartomi (page 173) and Ellingson (PhD dissertation, 1979, p. 544), might support the suggestion that, in keeping with the spirit of the original Hornbostel–Sachs classification scheme, of categorization by what first produces the initial sound in the instrument, that such reeds should not really remain as aerophones, exiting for the lamellophones. The tro u (Khmer: ទ្រអ៊ូ; also spelled tro ou) is a traditional instrument from Cambodia that dates back at least as far as the "Lungvek period," about 1528-1594, and is the lowest pitched tro, with strings tuned in a 5th, approximately C—G. The sound is caused by a single compression and release of air. This group must not be confused with that of friction idiophones. trans., 1937/R), ‘La signification, la tache et la technique museographique des collections d'instruments de musique’, Mouseion, xxvii–xxviii (1934), 153–84, Les instruments de musique de Madagascar (Paris, 1938), The History of Musical Instruments (New York, 1940), The Rise of Music in the Ancient World, East and West (New York, 1943), ‘The Road to Major’, MQ, xxix (1943), 381–404, The Commonwealth of Art: Style in the Fine Arts, Music and the Dance (New York, 1946), Our Musical Heritage (New York, 1948, 2/1955/R), ‘Rhythm and Tempo: an Introduction’, MQ, xxxviii (1952), 384–98, Rhythm and Tempo: a Study in Music History (New York, 1953/R), with A. Mendel and C.C. Classification: Aerophone Wind Brass: Hornbostel–Sachs classification: 423.232 (Valved aerophone sounded by lip movement) Playing range; in F: sounds a perfect fifth lower than written. in EthM, xxxviii (1994), 125–56, ‘Wanyamwezi-Gesänge’, Anthropos, iv (1909), 781–800, 1033–52, ‘Musikpsychologische Bemerkungen über Vogelgesang’, ZIMG, xii (1910–11), 117–28 [corrections 331–2], with C. Stumpf: ‘Über die Bedeutung ethnologischer Untersuchungen für die Psychologie und Ästhetik der Tonkunst’, IV. 111.242.21 Sets of resting bells whose opening faces upward. Non-free aerophones (wind instruments proper) (42), List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number, List of membranophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number, List of chordophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number, List of aerophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number, List of musical instruments by Hornbostel–Sachs number, "MIMO Project – Musical Instrument Museums Online", Hornbostel–Sachs in ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization, International Committee of Musical Instrument Museums and Collections, Revision of the Hornbostel–Sachs Classification of Musical Instruments, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hornbostel–Sachs&oldid=994659834, Wikipedia introduction cleanup from November 2018, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from November 2018, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Articles to be expanded from November 2018, Articles with empty sections from November 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 111.212 Sets of percussion sticks in a range of different pitches combined into one instrument. The player makes a ribbon-shaped flow of air with his/her lips (421.1), or his/her breath is directed through a duct against an edge (421.2). Indeed his achievement in synthesizing countless facts into a comprehensible whole is all the more impressive since he often dealt with previously unexplored areas. Blown idiophones are idiophones set in vibration by the movement of air, for example the Aeolsklavier, an instrument consisting of several pieces of wood which vibrate when air is blown onto them by a set of bellows. 312.1 Whole tube zithers – The string carrier is a complete tube. The top five levels of the scheme are as follows: Idiophones primarily produce their sounds by means of the actual body of the instrument vibrating, rather than a string, membrane, or column of air. 112.13 Vessel rattles – Rattling objects enclosed in a vessel strike against each other or against the walls of the vessel, or usually against both. This includes most types of drums, such as the timpani, or kettle drum, and the snare drum. Useimmissa kielisoittimissa värähtelyt välittyvät instrumentin runkoon, joka … Another instrument classified as 423.121.22 is the bronze lur, an instrument dating back to the Bronze Age. Hornbostel and Sachs themselves cite the case of various bagpipes where some of the pipes are single reed (like a clarinet) and others are double reed (like the oboe). 421.211.3 Stopped flutes with external duct. Acoustic and electro-acoustic instruments which have a resonator as an integral part of the instrument, and solid-body electric chordophones. These idiophones are set in vibration by being struck, for example cymbals or xylophones. 421.112.3 Mixed open and stopped panpipes. 112.112 Stick rattles – Rattling objects are strung on a bar or ring. 321.1 Bow lutes – Each string has its own flexible carrier. After studying natural sciences and philosophy at the universities of Heidelberg and Vienna (1895–9) he took the doctorate in chemistry in Vienna (1900) and then moved to Berlin, where, under the influence of Stumpf at the university, he became absorbed in the study of experimental psychology and musicology, particularly tone psychology. in GSJ, xiv (1961), 3–29 [trans. pipe organ with electrically controlled solenoid air valves); 52. With Abraham, Hornbostel published a series of essays on non-European music (Japanese, Turkish, Indian, Amerindian) based on materials at the Phonogramm-Archiv, and suggested a method for transcribing music from recordings. ‘Planet’ 1906/07 (Berlin, 1909), 139–52, ‘Über Mehrstimmigkeit in der aussereuropäischer Musik’, IMusSCR III: Vienna 1909, 298–303, with O. Abraham: ‘Vorschläge für die Transkription exotischer Melodien’, SIMG, xi (1909–10), 1–25; Eng. In 1934 he began the series of historical recordings, L’Anthologie Sonore, which provided an introduction to the sound of early music for several generations of students. 421.22 Flutes with internal duct – The duct is inside the tube. 311.2 Stick zithers – With rigid string carrier. Aerophone Chordophone Idiophone Membranophone According to the Sachs-Von Hornbostel classification of instruments, ... (Von Hornbostel and Sachs 1961: 14) Sachs adds that instruments of this type are extensions of striking or clapping hands or stamping feet. 421.221.312 With adjustable stopped lower end. 111.242.12 Hanging bells suspended from the apex. trans., M. Herndon, Inter-American Music Bulletin, no.71 (1969), 1–42, ‘Die Entstehung des Jodelns’, Musikwissenschaftlicher Kongress: Basle 1924, 203–10, ‘Die Einheit der Sinne’, Melos, iv (1924–5), 290–97; Eng. 111.242.22 Sets of hanging bells suspended from the apex. 121.22 Heteroglot guimbardes – The lamella is attached to the frame (Western Jew's harp. Being Jewish, Sachs was deprived of all his academic positions in 1933; he went to Paris, where he worked with André Schaeffner at the ethnological museum, the Musée de l’Homme (then Musée du Trocadéro), and taught at the Sorbonne. Austrian scholar. The Hornbostel-Sachs classification (from the GSJ translation, with minor alterations) follows as an appendix to this article. 112.12 Frame rattles – Rattling objects are attached to a carrier against which they strike (. 421.111.2 Stopped single end-blown flutes – The lower end of the flute is closed. in Ethnomusicology: an Introduction, ed. Cookies can be used to collect and store user data while connected to provide you the requested services and sometimes tend not to keep. The plane of the strings runs parallel with the resonator's surface. Thus it has been more recently proposed that, for example, the pipe organ (even if it uses electric key action to control solenoid valves) remain in the aerophones category, and that the electric guitar remain in the chordophones category, etc.. Learn more. Hornbostel–Sachs List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number Struck idiophone Musical instrument Triangle ... Salo (instrument) Krachappi Saw duang Thon and rammana Saw sam sai. 423.121.2 End-blown horns – The tube is curved or folded. Rabab The rebab (Arabic: ربابة , rabāb, variously spelled rebap, rabab, rebeb, rababa and rabeba, also known as جوزه jawza or joza in Iraq) is a type of a bowed string instrument so named no later than the 8th century and spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, and the Far East. A fourth category, plucked drums, was included by Hornbostel and Sachs but subsequent research (L. Picken and others in Musica asiatica, iii, 1981) has suggested that these should be reclassified as variable tension chordophones. It is the first of the four main divisions in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification. Vocal Music-Any of the genres for solo voice and voices in combination, with or without instrumental accompaniment-It includes monophonic music (having line of melody) and polyphonic music (consisting of more than one simultaneous melody).-Vocal music in Indonesia: a.Tembang Sudah – or “seni mamaos cianjuran” or cianjuran, is a form of sung poetry b. The player executes the movement of striking; whether by mechanical intermediate devices, beaters, keyboards, or by pulling ropes, etc. Gel detergent cleaner (non-abrasive) Go to Product Preview. A numeric code, similar to the class marks of the Dewey decimal library classification system, indicates the structure and physical function of the instrument. in GSJ, xiv, 1961, pp.3–29, repro. 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