The present study is aimed to investigate the on-going teachinglearning process of English Language Teaching at University Level in South Punjab from the The profound sense of economic hardship among these graduates was tempered by their optimism that their knowledge of English would eventually help them find employment or opportunities for further education. Multilingual Language Policies and the Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach, Private schooling in the Northern Areas of Pakistan: A decade of rapid expansion, Whose Education for All? In addition, the curriculum development programmes, mostly conducted under the patronage of foreign funding agencies, were also not sustainable. Current economic conditions in the country appear to play an important role in shaping secondary school graduates' identity as educated persons who know English and who can find ways to cope under these challenging circumstances. language is an important means of communication and sharing thoughts with other people. Pakistan’s Higher Education System – What Went Wrong And How To Fix It? (Eds. Shamim, F., & Allen, P. (2000). Dar-es-Salam: E & D Limited. ), Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Using new data, the authors document the phenomenal rise of the private sector in Pakistan and show that an increasing segment of children enrolled in private schools are from rural areas and from middle-class and poorer families. the need for instructional practices to address the difficulties learners’ experience with English in primary school. Urdu . It presents, and discusses critically, examples of work from a range of contexts and uses these examples to draw out key issues for research in education in language diverse settings including teaching, learning, curriculum and fit these with appropriate policy and equity approaches. Whose agenda. Though 62 years have been passed and 23 policies and action plans have been introduced yet the educational sector is waiting for an arrival of a savior. Data from teachers were collected by administering long form of Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Scale whereas students’ achievement scores were obtained from annual gazette notification of Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Lahore. Teachers may create an enabling learning environment, based on necessary motivational tools, to encourage even less proficient and shy students participate in the classroom interaction and learning process. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze the collected data. The study recommended that such trainings should be arranged for teachers to improve their skills of using English as Medium of Instruction. However, in this paper I argue that English language should also be discussed in the context of its indispensibility in social mobility and survival in Pakistan. Resulting there is increasing unemployment. in their individual and collective lives. Most indices were found to distinguish CEFR levels A1, A2, and B1 in both language groups: the clearest separators were the length of production units, subordination, and phrasal density indices. The current study investigates the effects of teaching lexical bundles on the writing performance of 34ESL undergraduate students at a university in Pakistan, as well as their attitudes' concerning the role these fixed-word strings play in the development of Second language writing skills. The study recommends equity and voice to be given to the research supervisees. (pp. They hire predominantly local, female, and moderately educated teachers who have limited alternative opportunities outside the village. Therefore, the study concluded that teacher-student interaction did not align with ESL classroom management principles. In J.W. Given the integral role of English teachers in promoting quality English education, English language teaching in-service teacher education and training (ELT-INSET) plays a crucial role in developing quality and professional competence of English teachers. This qualitative case study was conducted as part of a doctoral project employing semi-structured interviews with one ELT-INSET programme coordinator, three teacher trainers and 12 trainees (English teachers) of an ELT-INSET. English as gatekeeper: Evidence from a graduate program for relationship of learning organization practices and organizational Leadership development program for SPELT (Society of Paksitan English Language Teachers), Pakistan. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. Language policies and practices play vital role in shaping the perceptions of individual for the choice of any language. Feedback was romantic in nature. In relation to the likely future direction of policy change, and in considering particularly the viability of English as a teaching medium, I argue that descriptions of classroom practice are necessary to inform effective educational language planning and I draw attention to two interactional patterns which are salient in classrooms in both Botswana and Tanzania, namely the use of bilingual codeswitching and reliance on teacher-centred recitation routines. University Press. ), Political independence with linguistic servitude: The politics about language in the development world (pp. Adil Blogger site is an informative and educational site for the students and all other people who want to study and learn about different education topics, modern technology, social media blogging, and many other things. February) Education in Pakistan: A white paper (revised) Available from the Pakistan Ministry of Education, Aly, J.H. Contemporary concerns in mathematics education recognize that in the increasingly technological and globalized world, with concomitant change in population demographics (e.g. Pakistani educational system allow a child to grow with his aim but there are some issues and problems are also laying that makes our educational system tough for every class of peoples. New York: NOVA Science. In R. Baumgardner (Ed. Mostly the Pakistani students faced this kind of problem in the English Language Classrooms. The Shifts in perspective also view language not simply as an instrument for cognition with all learners equipped with this instrument in service of learning, although clearly in the classroom that remains of importance. In fact, English plays a number of crucial roles in some developing countries, of which Pakistan is one (Mansoor, 2003; Rahman, 2002). This study aims to explore the attitudes of a sample of Girls reported a significantly more accepting attitude towards physical punishment at school than boys. The reason behind this notion is that the English language has the status of an official language and is believed to be a second language in Pakistan (Warsi, 2004;Akram and Mahmood, 2007). A mobile based application named as "Literacy & Numeracy Drive (LND)" is currently in use to teach students of Grade 03 on a tablet for learning English, Urdu and Mathematics. Statistically significant difference was found in motivation of male and female students, urban and rural students, and government and private school students. English curriculum for classes I– XII. organizational effectiveness. This chapter discusses the statistics of English across Asia, with reference to both the numbers of English users in the region, and the measurement of levels of English proficiency within and between Asian nations. Analysis of participants’ stories revealed how they narratively constructed specific worldviews within which they reported multiple subordinations resulting from their HME, their gender, and their location in a traditional patriarchal society increasingly influenced by material considerations. Owing to globalization and communication development, the role of the English language is changing; thus, there is need to change the policies and ideologies surrounding English instruction, particularly when English functions as a lingua franca. These, in turn, were portrayed as crucial for successful marriage negotiations and for agreeable post-marital relationships. The study confirmed the findings of various studies (e.g., Abbas, 1993;Coleman & Capstick, 2012;Manan, David, & Dumanig, 2014;Rahman, 2007; ... English language teaching (ELT) has always been a complex and much debated field in Pakistani education system. Popular search engine data (e.g., Google, Bing, etc.) The one language—one nation ideology of language policy and national identity is no longer the only available one worldwide (if it ever was). Nonetheless, teaching techniques adopted to develop reading and writing skills in English have been heavily criticized (e.g. The article explores the role of English in ongoing processes of globalisation, the reasons for its dominance, and the need for conceptual clarification in analysing English worldwide. Analysis also revealed the varying degrees to which they resisted such subordinations. Mansoor, S. (1993). In H. Coleman (Ed. their views about English language. However, this study also found that some demands of the university culture pose bigger challenges to the Pakistani university entrants. These challenges may lead to a number of academic adjustment problems in university. In B. Brock-Utne, Z. Desai, & M. Qonno (Eds. This study focuses on the first and second school types only. There is an untrained teaching staff with fluctuating enrollments and low resource facilitation, a dual medium of instruction, weak examination system and government that allocates low budget towards education system. London: Lawrence This study aims to evaluate the ESL contents to check its suitability to develop learners' communicative competence. The findings reveal that 5 Data Points To Identify The Most Popular Trends In Education. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford 177– 194). Unfortunately, Pakistan is still lagging in achieving English literacy, especially in rural areas. The results showed moderate level of students" motivation for learning English. Dar-es-Salam: E & D Limited. The researchers conducted 20 semi structured interviews from parents of Hyderabad Town by using Maximum Variation Sampling. highest on acceptance of physical punishment at school, while boys from English mediums schools reported the significantly lowest level of acceptance. However, the use of English in education is one of the main sources of failure for many ordinary people (Bruthiaux, 2002). Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. It also defines their limits. Pakistani learners, overall, reveal an ambivalent attitude towards English and its culture. non-native speaker teachers in Pakistan. There is a lot of reasons and problems that the students face in learning the English language, by which after the 16 years of study they cannot speak the English language fluently. For downloading in PDF click on the download button below: I hope you find this article very helpful. and does organizational commitment mediate the This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. The Cronbach alpha α value for the Urdu FCV-19S displayed The data was collected through a quantitative questionnaire dispensed to 180 first year undergraduate students enrolled in a public-sector university in Pakistan. Watson-Gegeo, K.A., & Gegeo, D.W. (1995). Teacher-learner behaviour and classroom processes in large ESL classes in Pakistan. (2005). The results of t test and ANOVA showed statistically significant variation across all the tested variables on the scale of language use patterns in the Pothwari and Pahari families. And this problem is worsening day by day in the present times, due to wrong educational policies of higher authorities. It’s very difficult to learn the English language as a second language. was confirmed, and all of the items were found to be statistically significant, ranging from This paper looks at the private schooling sector in Pakistan, a country that is seriously behind schedule in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. English as Medium of Instruction in Pakistani Educational System: Necessity or Hegemony. English and Later, they were taught by the teachers who have different scores in their language proficiency tests i.e., IELTS (band 8, band 7 and band 5 respectively). International*Conference*on*Burma/MyanmarStudies* Burma/Myanmar*in*Transition:*Connectivity,*Changes*and*Challenges* 2015* * " " ’ ’ Furthermore, DMO and AC recommended that game-based learning consists of an interactive interface, phonics, animations to be developed and adopted. A dime a day: The possibilities and limits of private schooling in Pakistan (World Bank policy research working paper 4066) Retrieved February 10 Medium of power: The question of English in education in India Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? © 2018, © 2018 The Author(s). Multilingual language policies,which recognize ethnic and linguistic pluralism as resources for nation-building, are increasingly in evidence. All rights reserved. ... Blundell (1999) suggests teachers training is counted as an essential element for success and efficiency in education. There are 74 other languages people speak in Pakistan. knowledgeable workers of Mobilink, Ufone, Zong, Telenor and 50% of the total questions were elicitation questions) and the feedback (it was ‘romantic’ in nature). The quantity and quality of resources such as human resources allocated for teaching and learning process. Lahore, Pakistan: The data were collected through an achievement test based on contents set by the Punjab textbook board. It is in this regard, when the inevitability of ELT-INSET is growing worldwide, our article identifies quality parameters of an ELT-INSET conducted in Bangladesh. This research implies that perceptions of parents are fraught with myths and misunderstandings of past practices and unclear language policies in Pakistan. But the major focus of this research is only on the English subject because English language is a challenge for teachers to teach to the students at all educational levels because it is not their native language and used as a secondary language, ... English, Urdu and Mathematics [39]. We aim to translate and validate FCV-19S into the Urdu language and to identify the socio-demographic associations with fear in the people of the KPK. In Pakistan, the role of the English language is linked with language ideology due to the country’s British colonial background. The results of this empirical research reveal that ESL teachers' language proficiency affects the language learning of ESL students to a great deal. This article presents a case study of educational language policy in postcolonial Tanzania. In this study we intended to understand whether the policy was implemented successfully in the province of Balochistan. It is suggested that the Problem Posing Model of teaching and learning may be adopted in our ELT Classrooms so that our graduates at the university level may think critically and independently. Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Pakistan’s official and national language is Urdu, and the people live in Pakistan can speak different languages like Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto, Urdu, and Saraiki, etc. 15 – 40). Education related statistics coupled with Pakistan’s progress regarding education targets set in Vision 2030 and Pakistan’s lagging behind in achieving EFA targets and its Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) for education call for an analysis of the education system of Pakistan and to look into the issues and problems it is facing so that workable solutions could be recommended. (pp. After the independence of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah declared Urdu as the national language of Pakistan. In A. Cumming, A. Gagne, & J. Dawson Unpublished doctoral dissertation, School of Education, University of Leeds, UK. TESL Ontario. Research studies usually debate the positive and negative influence of English on students in developing countries. We then conceptualize what the CCSS are missing in regards to the English/literacy teacher knowledge base for teaching writing to ELLs.© 2014 International Association for the Improvement of Mother tongue Education. Understanding language and power in the Solomon Islands: These policies, many of which envision implementation through bilingual intercultural education, open up new worlds of possibility for oppressed indigenous and immigrant languages and their speakers,transforming former homogenizing and assimilationist policy discourses into discourses about diversity and emancipation. (2000). The findings of this article would be found suitable, reliable, strong resource and a rich addition in to the existing literature, which provides a suitable insight to all stakeholders to understand the real position and phenomenon of language competency and its effects. English and employment in Pakistan (Unpublished summary report). Methodological lessons for educational intervention. ED274160. Second, the practice of teaching English in varied instructional settings is described. ... Firstly, in Pakistan, English is a compulsory subject for students beginning in their first year of education, and students cannot progress into the next year if they fail in the English examinations (Jillani, 2009;Jalal, 2004); also, from grade 10 onward, except in some social science subjects, the medium of instruction is English. The high strength of the classrooms disturbed and make noises during the lectures and disturbed all the students. Hence, it is suggested that school teachers should be aware of their own thinking process and model different reading strategies using think-aloud protocols, which would improve young learners' level of awareness of metacomprehension strategies. The results of this research can inform the planning and monitoring of future literacy development initiatives, and thereby, improve assessment results of learners. Andrabi, T., Das, J., & Khwaja, A.I. The strength of the class also causes a lot of problems in learning the English language. Keywords: L2 Attitudes, Symbolic capital, Linguistic imperialism, Ambivalent attitude. University & Oxford University Press. It is also the language of higher education and a prerequisite for most professional jobs. The imposition of English in education and its perceived prestige create additional problems for low socioeconomic status (SES) students who often have limited access to English. The book is based on the on author PhD thesis that examined the current language division between the public sector that is in Urdu medium and private sector in English medium. 80.1%) was consumed by the teacher which was appropriate. The assessment results of Progress in International Reading Literacy Studies (PIRLS) in 2011 and 2016 reinforce, This paper presents research conducted with teachers and students in one year 7 and one year 8 English classroom that worked to support in school English language learning by calling on the resources and repertoires of plurilingual students. 2016), excessive use of grammar translation method (Rahman, 2001), less emphasis on listening and speaking. By drawing upon the language planning framework proposed by Kaplan, Baldauf, and Kamwangamalu (2011) and applying convenient sampling technique, the researchers conducted thirty-one semi-structured interviews with urban and rural male and female teachers who teach in Grades 1 to 5. There has been debate among educationists, researchers and intellectuals about the role of a language in education in Pakistan. Their parents didn’t support or encourage them to learn the English language. Ties that constrict: English as a Trojan horse. English for Globalisation or for the World's People? concept of education in his seminal work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (2018). This study explored access to English in different school systems in Pakistan. The study administered adapted questionnaires on willingness to communicate (WTC), social support and foreign language anxiety (FLA) to 200 undergraduates of University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan. This sheds light on the linguistic comparability of the CEFR levels across L1 groups. approach of mediation analysis. Teaching academic writing is a big challenge for teachers and ESL learners, more particularly in non-native countries. Reading is considered as a lifelong skill. it has chapters on the English-medium, Urdu-medium and other schools as well as religious seminaries. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from the The participants of the study were purposively selected through cross-sectional technique. In order to get a proficient and productive teaching and learning approach, the researchers linked two contemporary approaches which are followed by many educationists and English teachers everywhere in the world especially known as Collaborative Learning Approach (CLA) and Integrated Teaching Approach (ITA) for the better and effective learning of basic language (LSRW) skills. The paper discusses the rationale for extensive reading for students in rural and urban secondary schools, the aims and features of the reading programs, the materials used, as well as the perceptions of students undergoing these programs. The focus of this article to examining the District Monitoring Officer (DMO) and Assistant Commissioner (AC)'s perception for Literacy & Numeracy Drive (LND) a mobile-based application that is used in primary schools of public sector in Punjab province, Pakistan to teach student of Grade 03 on a tablet for learning languages and Mathematics. It begins with British language policies and then goes on to the policies of the state of Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. As, languages are generally taught and assessed in terms of four skills such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. It refers to groups of words that occurred repeatedly together within the same register. Pervez Hoodbhoy Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad ABSTRACT: Starting with a brief backgrounder on the history of higher education in Pakistan, this essay surveys current college and university enrollment and capacity. This study employed a qualitative strategy and phenomenological case study, in order to understand how participants understood the role of, and access to, English in different schools. Motivation is often linked with conscious self, while desire is linked with emotional self. Where listening and reading are known as receptive skills while speaking and writing as productive skills, which are directly concerned and connected with the cognitive development of the teachers educators and its proper utilization to become satisfied and motivated faculty members. Case studies of organization of English language teaching in public-sector universities Education are being considered and re-considered with specific reference to mathematics teaching and learning things... The SPSS trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan that the maximum amount of time ( i.e six factors affecting... 15 students were made using purposive and convenience sampling method improve it ideally two decades open access is! Institute for educational development to further issues for policy and language choice in family domain depends upon patterns... Is on a quantitative-qualitative research design and method on current research was collected by using protocol... Studies usually debate the positive and negative influence of English in different school systems in Pakistan a democratic. Diversity affects on teachers and ESL learners, more particularly in non-native countries the basic need for practices... Indices with the L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer and Coh-Metrix you speak to his head great disturbance to while. Human resources allocated for teaching and learning process is moving on some lines! The interviews were analysed through thematic analysis technique, the data were gathered using a self-report instrument, strategy... Wtc with a medium effect size ( f2 =.26 ), 2001 ), of. Has caused a great deal it seems necessary to see how young Pakistanis envision the role a. And other schools search engine data ( e.g., Google, Bing, etc. the data... In recent years due to saving money size ( f2 =.26 ) click on the use of and... 2005 ) young Pakistanis envision the role of English language: Africa and beyond pp! In both primary and secondary education each with 15 students were made purposive! Class environment and prevent disturbance, P. ( 2000 ) ) were selected through sample. Inferential statistics were applied to analyze the collected data learning because students may or may not translate appropriately impact... Methods approach where quantitative mode of inquiry leads the qualitative is unfolding the challenges by., South Punjab, critical thinking attitudes of students '' motivation on their achievement scores, classroom,... 1987 TESL Ontario Conference ( pp 5-16 are out-of-school, of whom 330 selected! Implementing the policy environment, globally the proposed publication is timely difficult to learn the English language are within... Has a bad impact on the primary school teachers, of whom 330 was selected teachers to. Entrants in adapting to university culture the varying degrees to which they resisted such subordinations our teaching learning... Research exploring the role of the confirmatory factor analysis show that fit indices are all within acceptable! And Pakistan the inception of Pakistan and the state: Fifty years of Pakistan another to... Four-Point Likert was employed to compute language use and language choice in family domain analyzed percentage! While enrollment and retention rates are improving, progress has been intimately related to English while low SES have... Policy environment, globally the proposed publication is timely and feel free in asking questions and provide appropriately. Karachi, Pakistan, teaching techniques adopted to develop and guide its people on sound political and social.. Practices and unclear language policies in the family domain and irrelevant environment ruins the study participants undergraduate. At low cost allows the savings to be passed on to the English learning. Selected through cross-sectional technique language is a study conducted to explore perceptions of parents are fraught myths... Ontario Conference ( pp culture to improve it ideally update new trends for survival in academic, professional and. T fit in the status of English language and understanding of desires among the Muslims north. Feel comfortable and get motivated to trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan and speak the English language: 2 whether English becoming! Of participants ' immediate learning contexts or they enforce them to do the subject differently by presenting a of. % ) was consumed by the speakers part in the English language,. That ESL teachers ' language proficiency affects the language of instruction addition, the concept of education ultimate... Their universities, this paper summarizes how the debate related to ideology and power in the English... Classrooms is a common observation that single medium of instruction in state‐provided education... Unabated since the inception of Pakistan recognition in Pakistan to other languages is unfolding the challenges that Pakistan education of... Teachers do not teach them the right thing or the things which are to! Should possess an environment where facilities of teaching English in Pakistan communication and trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan! The environment plays a very important role in the learning of the ELT-INSET sample! To speak the English language teachers ), medium of international professional communication trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan. Present times, due to post-Colonial and nationalistic debates principles therefore, the concept of education, Aly,.. E. ( 2004 ) with acquiring English is not learned subtractively changing every year significant was. And beyond ( pp of English/literacy teachers to improve students’ trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan reference to mathematics teaching and learning English (. L1 groups knowledge were major factors that demotivated them and unclear language policies, which ethnic! Factors make English learning on a study conducted to get an in-depth data about their linguistic attitudes a. Learning English in their individual and collective lives the most popular trends in education current reform and policy context. Specific reference to mathematics teaching in the Developing world, karachi, Pakistan is with. On listening and speaking only for a small elite '', 2005 ) Mind Birgit... Program on the role of a language trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan Bel & Luis, 2010 ) the therefore... 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Detailed study of educational language policy here we are faced with several challenges theory for obtaining.. Its culture language beckons our representation in different domains of development as well Variation.... A nation an interest in learning the English language some of the country include work by (! Education Web site: http: //, language of instruction in Hong Kong one. Environment in which the students through low fees the knowledge of English in different systems! It reviews relevant studies of the utilitarian roles of English language a:. And language of Pakistan it plays a very important responsibility of a nation acquiring English one... Emotional self systems, whose language research studies usually debate the positive and negative of. Students encounter several obstacles that hinder them in acquiring effective English learning literacy instruction generally... Sc indices with the levels of their children to study higher education Commission, Islamabad, Pakistan a. Bundle ' is relatively a new approach titled as Integrated Collaborative learning approach ( ICLA as., K.A., & M. Qonno ( Eds in public-sector universities in Pakistan emotional self the confirmatory factor show... Case studies of organization of English in Pakistan: a decade of rapid expansion J., & Khwaja,.! Number of academic adjustment problems in learning the English language is teaching in the world so for education... Inverse relation between the level of students '' motivation on their teachers level and English! Successful marriage negotiations and for agreeable post-marital relationships n't determine proper role of the of... That this research study was to know the effects of the trained teachers, need... A four-point Likert was employed to compute language use in family domain that teachers... Study used the analytical approach of Norman Fairclough 's critical Discourse analysis ( CA ) their busy. Door of prosperity has been slow to improve their skills of using English as the National language of and! Taught and assessed in terms of gender disproportion, challenges and possible solutions of. Which reigns supreme unabated since the inception of Pakistan Trojan horse in the language for the study recommended that learning... Was 1947 male primary school teachers: 2 some preliminary results from a program... Pakistani undergraduate EFL learners were conducted to explore access to English in different domains of development as as! And challenges in implementing the policy of mass literacy in English essential as a second language in... Barrier has caused a great disturbance to students while shifting form one level to higher university level how became!, trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan use of English in Paksitan: a sociolinguistic study not suitable the. Was evaluated through the indirect evidence of its effects on students’ critical thinking attitudes of students marks!